September 09, 2014

How Apple Pay works and why it matters for developers

Update: If you'd like to learn more, come to Clover's Apple Pay developer event in Mountain View on Wed, Oct 8: http://www.eventbrite.com/e/apple-pay-deep-dive-how-it-works-and-what-it-means-tickets-13394038931?aff=blog

Background: Clover and First Data (our parent company) have been working with Apple to prepare for the launch of Apple Pay to support developers, merchant acquirers, and issuing banks (see First Data's press release). Clover is enabling all merchants to accept In-App payments, and will be In-Person/NFC enabling all merchants as well (see https://www.clover.com/features/iphone). Here's a bit of how it works from a developer's perspective, and why it matters.

Apple Pay marks the first time a popular operating system is making payments a platform service for real-world, non-digital-good transactions, in a broad, inclusive manner that is compatible with the mainstream payments processing industry. At Clover we're particularly excited because we believe it opens up lightweight apps that can interact and transact with small-and-medium brick-and-mortar restaurants. By lightweight, I mean that these apps won't need to maintain a user database, require user logins, worry about getting cards on file, or being an unwilling payment aggregator. i.e., it will be at least 10x easier. I expect a huge amount of innovation in real-world mobile commerce as a result over the coming years because of the revolution that Apple Pay is starting.

Network-Level Tokenization

"All problems in computer science can be solved by another level of indirection". -- David Wheeler
The first and most important thing to know about is tokenization.

The payment networks (Visa, MasterCard, Amex, etc.) have been very busy building something called tokenization. I call this network-level tokenization to distinguish it from the more familiar forms of tokenization, which is typically performed at either the gateway (such as the Braintree card vault) or the acquiring platform (such as First Data's TransArmor).

E-commerce developers should be quite familiar with the concept of credit card vaults, which take in the PAN and give you back a token to use in its stead. These vaults are typically provided by e-commerce payment gateways, such as Braintree or Stripe, and let you put credit cards on file for your users. I call this gateway-side tokenization. The defining characteristic of these tokens is that they're scoped to a single merchant. They're useful for a developer who wants to keep a credit card on file (to enable low-friction transactions) but without the burden of securing (and associated compliance) of maintaining a database of PANs.

Here's the authorization flow when a gateway-side token is used:

Gateway-side tokenization

The payment networks are proposing something very different: network-side tokenization. These tokens are very different. They are essentially aliases for PANs that are exchanged during an authorization by the network. These tokens are provisioned (see below) into the secure element on the iPhone 6 and used in authorization flows (further protected with 3-D Secure -- see below).

Here's the authorization flow when a network-side token is used:

Network-side tokenization
Network-side tokenization
There are several important things about these network-side tokens:
  • They look like standard PANs -- e.g. they're 16 digits. They're mostly compatible with the existing payment processing infrastructure.
  • The tokens are issued within a special BIN in the network's routing tables that flag it as a token rather than standard PAN.
  • They are exchanged via the network by Token Service Providers, a new role in the ecosystem.
  • They are provisioned via a Token into a secure element of a mobile device or some other "secure enough" storage (perhaps Android HCE), facilitated by the issuing bank.
Most developers reading this have likely never read an EMVCo specification, but this one is worth a read: EMV Payment Tokenisation Specification – Technical Framework.

This is the typical way that a developer would provision a token:

Token provisioning

EMV token provisioning is entirely different -- it's between the issuer, the wallet, and the Token Service Provider:

Network-side tokenization
The end result is a token that can be used across merchants and both online (In-App) and offline (NFC, In-Person).

User Logins

After thinking about it a second, you might realize "why do I need my user to create an account with an email address and password at all?" A primary driver (though not only) was to have an account to associate the gateway-side token with. This is no longer strictly necessary: A consumer could simply download an app that connects them with a local merchant, browse the menu, and buy something from their table. This is really important when it comes to apps for small- and medium-sized businesses (local merchants).

Accidental Merchant Aggregators

Many mobile wallets and online-to-offline services have become merchant aggregators, where the company becomes the merchant-of-record for many submerchants.

Say you're an order-ahead app enabling consumers to buy food and pick it up later. You really don't want to be in the payments business, but how else do you collect money from the consumer and to the restaurant? There's so much friction in the system that the typical way is to become the merchant-of-record, which is a position you accept begrudingly. Chargebacks and disputes? It's your problem now.

Network-level tokenization, and iPhone in particular, will radically change this dynamic. Commerce apps won't be forced to become aggregators any longer -- they simply need to use the iOS payment SDKs, and the SDK from the merchant acquirer, to process the payment.

Clover is making this even easier -- all Clover merchants will be enabled for In-App payments, which will give developers instant access to many thousands of merchants through our APIs (for submitting and reading orders, reading and updating menus and retail inventory, receipt printing, etc.). We're selling Clover Station to thousands of merchants a month, enabling developers to reach these merchants through the Clover App Market.

iOS Payments SDKs

Developing an iOS app that uses Apple Pay In-App payments is quite simple. You will use two different APIs:
  1. iOS In-App payments API, for interacting with the user and getting a payment token.
  2. Your merchant acquirer's API, for processing the transaction with said token.
Check out First Data's Payeezy SDK (even more so if you're a Clover developer). In the future all Clover merchants who desire it will automatically be able to accept In-App payments.

3-D Secure

3-D Secure, known commonly as Verified by Visa and MasterCard SecureCode has been largely ignored in the U.S. This is a crude analogy, but 3-D Secure is the e-commerce analog to EMV (which authenticates a cardholder via cryptograms coming from the card). It provides authentication from the issuing bank to use the token that has been provisioned onto the iPhone.

Developers working on iPhone In-App payments don't need to know the details of 3-D Secure when they use Payeezy, but I find it interesting (and you'll find some references to 3-D Secure in the Payeezy SDK).

Here's what a transaction message to a gateway looks like before 3-D Secure (from the Payeezy API docs):
{
    "merchant_ref": "Astonishing-Sale",
    "transaction_type": "purchase",
    "method": "credit_card",
    "amount": "1299",
    "currency_code": "USD",
    "credit_card": {
        "type": "visa",
        "cardholder_name": "John Smith",
        "card_number": "4788250000028291",
        "exp_date": "1014",
        "cvv": "123"
    }
}

And after 3-D Secure (also from the Payeezy API docs):
{
  "merchant_ref":"merchant-specific-info (This is optional)",
  "transaction_type": "purchase",
  "method": "3DS",
  "3DS":  {
    "type": "A",
    "version": "EC_v1",
    "merchantIdentifier": "mock-1",
    "applicationData": "VGhpcyBpcyBzb21lIHRlc3QgZGF0YS4gIDAxMjM0NTY3ODk=",
    "data": "v6cqGDrjcJUCLdpRkSQIt...",
    "signature": "AKCAMIIBoTCCAUgCAQEwCQYHTBFMQswCQYDVQQGEwJVUzE...",
 "header":  {
      "applicationDataHash": "4b5745dd55d72886c06a2c65bb05...",
      "ephemeralPublicKey": "MFkwEwYHKoZIzj0CAQYIKoZIzj0D...",
      "publicKeyHash": "YmSWN7lj4+A6fVJVPicP8TgS7gI7oug...",
      "transactionId": "34303833303938"
    }
  }

Apple Pay NFC Payments

NFC has been derided for years in the U.S. (though my coworker's 65-year-old mother arrived from Australia a couple days ago complaining bitterly that merchants here can't take tap payments). It's a really great technology that's just been waiting for a tipping point. That point is here.

Apple Pay uses industry-standard EMV contactless protocols over NFC (and MSD contactless for backward compatibility). This makes it compatible with a wide range of contactless payment terminals in deployment today. Clover is NFC-enabling all current and future Clover products.

About the author: John Beatty is co-founder and President of Engineering at Clover. Follow him at http://twitter.com/beatty. Follow Clover Engineering at http://twitter.com/CloverEng. Press can be reached at press@clover.com.

154 comments:

  1. How does the token get issued? Is it issued by the Issuer to apple? Where is the handoff of the PAN to the issuer taking place?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. The token is issue by the payment network (Apple)

      Delete
    2. Yes, the token is issued by the payment network, but Apple is not the payment network. The network would be Visa/MasterCard/AMEX. Apple receives the token from the payment network when the card is stored in Apple Pay (or Passport), then the token is provided each time a payment is made.

      Delete
    3. at some point during either the setup of the card in passport or the transaction itself, the PAN has to be transmitted to either the association (VISA/MC) and/or the issuer (BoA, Chase, Citibank). The issuer has to know which card account to charge for the transaction.

      Delete
    4. Yes ... One time during setup

      Delete
    5. Help get merchants to update their systems so that we can all pay with passport. Clover is an awesome system!!!

      Delete
  2. Much thanks for this explanation! A couple questions: Why do systems still use PANs instead of just public/private key? Also where does iPhone fit into your diagrams?

    ReplyDelete
  3. What will it take to make this work with Android phones?

    ReplyDelete
  4. "first time a popular operating system is making payments a platform service for real-world, non-digital-good transactions, in a broad, inclusive manner that is compatible with the mainstream payments processing industry."

    How can you ignore Google Wallet, which I've been using to make secure NFC payments for real world, non-digital-good transactions since 2011? Likewise, what about the unfortunately-named ISIS system by Verizon and others?

    A more valuable article would explain the advantage Apple Pay has over these system, such that it'll succeed where they have clearly failed - not ignored their existence completely.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. This article does explain the advantage Apple Pay has over other eWallet systems. By utilizing Network-Level Tokenization, Apple has integrated with all gateways, processors, issuers, and acquirers in the current payment scheme by negotiating directly with Visa, MasterCard, AMEX, Bank of America, JP Morgan Chase, Wells Fargo, and the list goes on...

      This isn't something that other eWallets have done. Thus, why Apple Pay will be around... and others won't.

      Delete
    2. Not to mention the added security offered by the Token so your card number is not flying around every time you run a transaction

      Delete
  5. I wonder:
    1) Will both NFC payments and in-app purchases made via fingerprint be considered card-present transactions for purposes of interchange fees?
    2) Can the payment-network's token be submitted for subsequent, recurring payments? i.e. If I purchase a monthly membership and pay for the first month via Apple Pay

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. 1) i read somewhere an article that said Apple negotiated a rebate of the interchange from the issuers for the difference in card present and card not present. If this is true i would assume it would be an interim solution with the associations coming out with a new IRD (interchange rate designator) at some point in the near future.

      Delete
    2. Currently, NFC will attract CP rates and InApp CNP. However the debate continues so I expect some change there. Yes, the recurring use case is supported ... Probably more pertinent in the InApp context only.

      Delete
  6. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  7. Will Apple supply any info on Customer and the device in case of a Charge back

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  9. Great summary, thanks!

    Do you know if in-app payments via 3-D Secure will also be using the secure element to generate a dynamic transaction signature, or will the secure element only be used for NFC in-store transactions?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Secure Element will be used in all the cases, be it in-app purchases or store transactions, for generating dynamic cryptogram because the key to generate transaction-specific cryptogram is stored in the secure element.

      Delete
  10. I would like to understand one thing, which is not clear from the article:

    in EMV, transactions are signed by a shared key that is normally stored in the SE of the card, being put there by the card issuer (hopefully) in controlled environment.

    Is there SE involved in Apple Pay EMV transations? If the answer is yes, then the key needs to be stored in the SE "in the field", by the software running on the device. How the transfer of the key from the issuer to the SE in the device protected from eavesdropping?

    If the answer is no, then transaction signing needs to be done by the software running on the device, and the shared key stored on the flash memory as regular data. Then, how is it protected from being lifted by malware?

    Or, am I missing something?

    Thanks.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. My understanding is that SE (Secure Element) will be embedded as HW as secure storage on device. This is where the key should be stored and updated.
      Regular Apps wont have access to it. Communication will happen via protected APIs .

      Delete
    2. I believe even if attackers get their hands on keys, it won't be useful for them, because the dynamic cryptogram is transaction-specific and carries transaction data and it's simply not possible to keep track of a user and follow him/her on every purchase he/she makes. Moreover, the cryptogram contains information that helps card brands realize that it's coming from the specific device which is the original device and it's hard to replicate that for an attacker.

      Delete
  11. Kind of irritated that you need an external device to make this work (with no info on how to get one) which defeats the all in one aspects of the Clover - and only having the clover for 2 months it is already outdated and i am on a 3 year lease. Will there be other tap pay options besides Apple Pay?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies

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  12. Instead of wasting time on Apple Pay why dont we get gift cards and EBT already?

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  13. I wonder How can the device (Apple phone) get the token from Payment Gateway. For example, I think that it needs a device account number (device ID) and Authentication by the Payment Gateway to get a token. Is there any person who have some information about that? Thanks

    ReplyDelete
  14. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  15. First of all thanks for the nice article

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